Need help? Partners MySchool Discovery. Subscribe to our newsletter Some error text Name. Email address subscribed successfully. A activation email has been sent to you. Please click the link in that email to activate your subscription. Sitemap Index. General Imprint:. Most Orbiter instruments still operated, when that spacecraft entered the atmosphere on Oct. The story of Pioneer Venus, the last of NASA's Pioneer planetary spacecraft, is an exciting read, from mission conception, through planning and funding, design of craft and instruments; then launch, arrival at Venus, and the success of probes and orbiter.
Much of the publications about Pioneer Venus, are about the data collected from the dozens of instruments. There's numerous accounts of each of the instruments, written by the Principle Investigators who built them, operated them, and processed and reported data from them.
Space, Exploration, Flight, Planets
There's accounts of the general features of the spacecraft. There's detailed accounts of the process of funding and launch, the tick-tock of events thru the missions. I'll provide a bibliography at the end of this Web page. Engineering hardware on Pioneer Venus But it's hard to find specific, "engineering" information about the spacecraft's controlling hardware, or about the hardware details of the instruments. However, a few of the general accounts of the mission, and a few about instrumentation, included information about "the microprocessor" and where and what it was.
No reference suggested the spacecraft were controlled by microprocessors. My impression is that Pioneer Venus used much the same controller technology as the previous ten Pioneers. A few references said, "the Neutral Mass Spectrometer contained a microprocessor" - but did not name brand or model.
In due course, I found one NASA publication which was specific and insisted quote "It also used the first microprocessor to fly in space: an Intel F55 , The book was published in by the US Govt. Printing Office, and thus is freely available for reference and copy: "our tax dollars at work". There's similar publications which describe the Pioneer Venus mission in chronologic and technical detail.
But this was the first I found which stated "the Intel ". The next section of this Web page, quotes its description of the in the Large Probe, and its reference to the controlling microprocessor.
The Pioneer Venus mission
I've shortened the text with comments in 's to explain the edits, or to note the pages referenced. The main component of each probe was a spherical pressure vessel. Machined from titanium, the vessels were sealed against the vacuum of space and the high pressure of Venus's atmosphere. Within this pressure vessel were scientific instruments and various subsystems for the probe's operation.
The Large Probe weight about kg lb and was about 1. It consisted of a forward aeroshell heat shield, a pressure vessel and an aft cover The pressure vessel fig was Four scientific instruments use nine observation windows thorugh four of the pressure vessel penetrations.
Pioneering Venus: A Planet Unveiled, Book by Richard O Fimmel (Hardcover) | taupamatantfur.ga
Eight windows were sapphire and one was diamond. One main difficulty was to develop an inlet system for the instru- ment. A single inlet would be fine in the dense lower atmosphere. But in the upper rarefied atmosphere, this instrument needed an additional inlet to provide sufficient gas input. In addition to its novel inlet design, this instrument had several other firsts.
Tonight's Sky — Select location
It was the first mass spectrometer of its size to survive the forces from an entry deceleration of g. It also used the first microprocessor to fly in space: an Intel The microprocessor allowed the spacecraft to take a full spectrum of data once every minute over the whole mass range of amu. The microprocessor selected the true data point from several data points and adjusted for calibration changes.
A high confidence factor was associated with the single data point transmitted. Without the microprocessor, it would have been possible to transmit a spectrum only once for every km change in altitude. With the micropro- cessor, sampling occurred at every 1-km change in altitude.
This region was mostly below the cloud layers. It could be used to predict individual destiny, avert undesirable events, and arrange auspicious moments to launch new enterprises. It was conceived of as natural science and justified by physical influences or considered to be divination, concerned with communication with the gods and goddesses. In some versions, the planets were neither influences nor causes of events on Earth, but timing devices, which indicated the ebb and flow of human affairs, like the hands on a modern clock.
There was no one single version of astrology and there were disputes about what it was and what it could do, for example, whether it could make precise predictions about individual affairs or merely general statements. From the early 4th century it went into a progressive decline, facing challenges from Christianity and the fragmentation of classical culture, especially in Western Europe. It survived in Persia, exerted a powerful influence on Indian astrology, and was transmitted to the Islamic world, from where it was reimported into the Latin West in the 12th century.
Ground- and satellite-based observations have shown atmospheric superrotation atmospheric rotation much faster than solid surface rotation , global-scale cloud patterns e. As the meteorological data have been stored, understanding of the atmospheric circulation has been gradually enriched with the help of theories of geophysical fluid dynamics and meteorology.
For the planetary-scale variations, slow-traveling waves with stationary and solar-locked structures and fast-traveling waves with phase velocities of around the superroational wind speeds are dominant in the cloud layer. Thermal tides, Rossby waves, Kelvin waves, and gravity waves play important roles in mechanisms for maintaining fast atmospheric rotation. In the lower atmosphere below the cloud layer, the atmospheric circulation is still unknown because of the lack of global observations.
Books by Eric Burgess
In addition to the limited observations, the atmospheric modeling contributes to deep understanding of the atmospheric circulation system. Electricity occurs in atmospheres across the Solar System planets and beyond, spanning spectacular lightning displays in clouds of water or dust, to more subtle effects of charge and electric fields. On Earth, lightning is likely to have existed for a long time, on the basis of evidence from fossilized lightning strikes in ancient rocks, but observations of planetary lightning are necessarily much more recent.
The generation and observations of lightning and other atmospheric electrical processes, both from within-atmosphere measurements, and spacecraft remote sensing, can be readily studied using a comparative planetology approach, with the Earth as a model. Lightning could potentially have implications for life through its effects on atmospheric chemistry and particle transport.
On Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn, lightning is thought to be generated in deep water and ice clouds, but discharges can be generated in dust, as for terrestrial volcanic lightning, and on Mars. Other, less well-understood mechanisms causing discharges in non-water clouds also seem likely. The discovery of thousands of exoplanets has recently led to a range of further exotic possibilities for atmospheric electricity, though lightning detection beyond our Solar System remains a technical challenge to be solved.
This is an advance summary of a forthcoming article in the Oxford Encyclopedia of Planetary Science.
Please check back later for the full article. The Austrian Outer Space Act, which entered into force in December ; and the Austrian Outer Space Regulation, which has been in force since February , form the legal framework for Austrian national space activities.
http://www.sanvalentinrun.com/images/146/conocer-gente-para-salir-en-vigo.php The legislation comprehensively regulates legal aspects related to space activities, such as authorization, supervision, and termination of space activities; registration and transfer of space objects; recourse of the government against the operator; as well as implementation of the law and sanctions for its infringement. One of the main purposes of the law is to ensure the authorization of national space activities. The Outer Space Act sets forth the main conditions for authorization, which inter alia refer to the expertise of the operator; requirements for orbital positions and frequency assignments; space debris mitigation, insurance requirements, and the safeguard of public order; public health; national security as well as Austrian foreign policy interests; and international law obligations.
- Demons in Disguise: The Dangers of Talking to the Dead.
- Richard O. Fimmel (Author of Pioneer Odyssey).
- How to Change the World: Reflections on Marx and Marxism!
- Currency Interventions, Fluctuations and Economic Issues.
The Austrian Outer Space Regulation complements these provisions by specifying the documents the operator must submit as evidence of the fulfillment of the authorization conditions, which include the results of safety tests, emergency plans, and information on the collection and use of Earth observation data. Particular importance is attached to the mitigation of space debris. Operators are required to take measures in accordance with international space debris mitigation guidelines for the avoidance of operational debris, the prevention of on-orbit break-ups and collisions, and the removal of space objects from Earth orbit after the end of the mission.
Another specificity of the Austrian space legislation is the possibility of an exemption from the insurance requirement or a reduction of the insurance sum, if the space activity is in the public interest. This allows support to space activities that serve science, research, and education. Moreover, the law also provides for the establishment of a national registry for objects launched into outer space by the competent Austrian Ministry. The first two Austrian satellites have been entered into this registry after their launch in The third Austrian satellite, launched in June , will be the first satellite authorized under the Austrian space legislation.
Throughout the history of human activity in outer space, the role of private companies has steadily grown, and, in some cases, companies have even replaced government agencies as the primary actors in space. As private space activity has grown and diversified, the laws and regulations that govern private actors have been forced to evolve in reaction to the new realities of the industry.
On the international level, the treaties concluded in the s and s continue to be in force today. However, these treaties only govern state activity in space. The rules regulating private industry are necessarily domestic in nature, and it is in these domestic laws that the evolution of space law can be most clearly seen.
That said, new industries, such as asteroid mining, are testing the limits of international law and have forced the international community to examine whether changes to long-standing laws are needed. The concept of chemical weathering on Venus through gas—solid type reactions was established in the early s after the discovery of the hot and dense CO 2 -rich atmosphere of the planet, inferred from Earth-based and Mariner 2 radio emission data.