Parallel Kinematic Machines: Theoretical Aspects and Industrial Requirements

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The purpose of the robot software is to facilitate both these programming tasks. Positional commands The robot can be directed to the required position using a GUI or text based commands in which the required X-Y-Z position may be specified and edited. Teach pendant: Robot positions can be taught via a teach pendant.

This is a handheld control and programming unit. The common features of such units are the ability to manually send the robot to a desired position, or "inch" or "jog" to adjust a position. They also have a means to change the speed since a low speed is usually required for careful positioning, or while test-running through a new or modified routine.

A large emergency stop button is usually included as well. Typically once the robot has been programmed there is no more use for the teach pendant. All teach pendants are equipped with a 3-position deadman switch. In the manual mode, it allows the robot to move only when it is in the middle position partially pressed.

Delta Parallel Robot - the Story of Success

If it is fully pressed in or completely released, the robot stops. This principle of operation allows natural reflexes to be used to increase safety. Lead-by-the-nose: this is a technique offered by many robot manufacturers. In this method, one user holds the robot's manipulator, while another person enters a command which de-energizes the robot causing it to go into limp.

The program can later run the robot to these positions or along the taught path. This technique is popular for tasks such as paint spraying. Offline programming is where the entire cell, the robot and all the machines or instruments in the workspace are mapped graphically. The robot can then be moved on screen and the process simulated.

A robotics simulator is used to create embedded applications for a robot, without depending on the physical operation of the robot arm and end effector.


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The advantages of robotics simulation is that it saves time in the design of robotics applications. It can also increase the level of safety associated with robotic equipment since various "what if" scenarios can be tried and tested before the system is activated. Robot simulation tools allow for robotics programs to be conveniently written and debugged off-line with the final version of the program tested on an actual robot. The ability to preview the behavior of a robotic system in a virtual world allows for a variety of mechanisms, devices, configurations and controllers to be tried and tested before being applied to a "real world" system.

Robotics simulators have the ability to provide real-time computing of the simulated motion of an industrial robot using both geometric modeling and kinematics modeling. Others in addition, machine operators often use user interface devices, typically touchscreen units, which serve as the operator control panel. The operator can switch from program to program, make adjustments within a program and also operate a host of peripheral devices that may be integrated within the same robotic system. These include end effectors , feeders that supply components to the robot, conveyor belts , emergency stop controls, machine vision systems, safety interlock systems, barcode printers and an almost infinite array of other industrial devices which are accessed and controlled via the operator control panel.

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The teach pendant or PC is usually disconnected after programming and the robot then runs on the program that has been installed in its controller. However a computer is often used to 'supervise' the robot and any peripherals, or to provide additional storage for access to numerous complex paths and routines.

The most essential robot peripheral is the end effector , or end-of-arm-tooling EOT. Common examples of end effectors include welding devices such as MIG-welding guns, spot-welders, etc. Other common means of picking up objects is by vacuum or magnets. End effectors are frequently highly complex, made to match the handled product and often capable of picking up an array of products at one time.

Parallel Kinematic Machines

They may utilize various sensors to aid the robot system in locating, handling, and positioning products. For a given robot the only parameters necessary to completely locate the end effector gripper, welding torch, etc. However, there are many different ways to define the points. The most common and most convenient way of defining a point is to specify a Cartesian coordinate for it, i.

Theory of Machines 2, Kinematic Links and Pairs

In addition, depending on the types of joints a particular robot may have, the orientation of the end effector in yaw, pitch, and roll and the location of the tool point relative to the robot's faceplate must also be specified. For a jointed arm these coordinates must be converted to joint angles by the robot controller and such conversions are known as Cartesian Transformations which may need to be performed iteratively or recursively for a multiple axis robot.

The mathematics of the relationship between joint angles and actual spatial coordinates is called kinematics. See robot control. Positioning by Cartesian coordinates may be done by entering the coordinates into the system or by using a teach pendant which moves the robot in X-Y-Z directions. When the desired position is reached it is then defined in some way particular to the robot software in use, e.

P1 - P5 below.

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Most articulated robots perform by storing a series of positions in memory, and moving to them at various times in their programming sequence. For example, a robot which is moving items from one place to another might have a simple 'pick and place' program similar to the following:.

For examples of how this would look in popular robot languages see industrial robot programming. This is a wrist about which the three axes of the wrist, controlling yaw, pitch, and roll, all pass through a common point. An example of a wrist singularity is when the path through which the robot is traveling causes the first and third axes of the robot's wrist i. The result of a singularity can be quite dramatic and can have adverse effects on the robot arm, the end effector, and the process.

Some industrial robot manufacturers have attempted to side-step the situation by slightly altering the robot's path to prevent this condition. Another method is to slow the robot's travel speed, thus reducing the speed required for the wrist to make the transition. A second type of singularity in wrist-partitioned vertically articulated six-axis robots occurs when the wrist center lies on a cylinder that is centered about axis 1 and with radius equal to the distance between axes 1 and 4.

This is called a shoulder singularity. Some robot manufacturers also mention alignment singularities, where axes 1 and 6 become coincident.

Theoretical Aspects and Industrial Requirements

This is simply a sub-case of shoulder singularities. When the robot passes close to a shoulder singularity, joint 1 spins very fast. The third and last type of singularity in wrist-partitioned vertically articulated six-axis robots occurs when the wrist's center lies in the same plane as axes 2 and 3. Singularities are closely related to the phenomena of gimbal lock , which has a similar root cause of axes becoming lined up.

According to the International Federation of Robotics IFR study World Robotics , there were about 2,, operational industrial robots by the end of This number is estimated to reach 3,, by the end of China is the largest industrial robot market, with , units sold in Estimated worldwide annual supply of industrial robots in units : [10].

The International Federation of Robotics has predicted a worldwide increase in adoption of industrial robots and they estimated 1. Rapid advances in automation technologies e. Injuries and fatalities could increase over time because of the increasing number of collaborative and co-existing robots, powered exoskeletons, and autonomous vehicles into the work environment. On October 16 NIOSH launched the Center for Occupational Robotics Research to "provide scientific leadership to guide the development and use of occupational robots that enhance worker safety, health, and wellbeing.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about manufacturing robots. For mining robots, see Automated mining. Main article: Workplace robotics safety.


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