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Changes in BCS are more obvious in female than in male elephants. BCS and fGCM are valuable approaches in monitoring the physiological health of free-ranging elephant populations. Arctic grayling develop an interlamellar cell mass ILCM in their gill filaments when exposed to a half-strength seawater saline exposure but can recover if a freshwater environment is re-established within 48 h post saline water exposure.
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Microscopy analysis reveals that ILCM development is associated with a salinity-induced immunologic response. We measured the critical swimming speed of sturgeon using different velocity and time intervals, to evaluate the best indicator of the swimming performance.
Overall, velocity increment had the greater impact on swimming performance, and researchers should consider both velocity and time intervals when measuring swimming performance of fish. In this study, we found a high tolerance to high-light conditions for the protected cactus Ariocarpus kotschoubeyanus , which could explain why this species does not show preferences to protected sites under nurse plants. Polar bears experience skeletal muscle atrophy during winter whether they hibernate or not.
Bears spending summer on sea ice in the Arctic basin undergo a second period of atrophy caused by fasting, whereas bears with shore access to adequate, alternative food do not. Summer atrophy may influence fitness. Warmer temperatures increased the peak heart rate, scope for heart rate, factorial heart rate and the initial rate of energy expenditure, though the overall recovery duration was consistent across treatments.
Muskoxen are increasingly exposed to multiple stressors that may impact their health and fitness. We measured stress hormones in their qiviut wooly undercoat , and found differences across seasons, years and between sexes. Qiviut cortisol is a promising tool for guiding muskox conservation in a rapidly changing Arctic. This study developed tissue culture and cryopreservation methods for the threatened Cycladenia humilis var. The cultures initially displayed abnormal hyperhydric growth, but more normal characteristics were promoted by venting the cultures.
In this article, we demonstrate a quantifiable and measurable relationship between seed viability and metabolic rate, as measured in seeds from 12 species of flowering plants. This suggests that metabolic rate can be used to infer viability in seeds collected for conservation purposes. Forest management practices can influence offspring sex ratio in birds. Swimming marine snails in the Antarctic are a key component of the pelagic community.
They exhibit higher respiration rates under future ocean scenarios of low pH when compared to current-day conditions. They also exhibit higher respiration rates under future low-pH conditions when paired with a high temperature stress. This study compares two nearby populations of arctic ground squirrels that experience significant differences in the timing of snowmelt and snow cover relative to their phenologies of hibernation and breeding.
We found differences in the body condition, stress physiology and reproductive success of adult females, and in the subsequent juvenile recruitment between the populations. A cosmopolitan non-species specific gill parasite associated with finfish aquaculture and high temperatures compromises gill functionality and swimming abilities in Atlantic salmon.
Interactions with environmental warming are expected to amplify the pathophysiology of this parasite. Our work has identified blood-based markers of oxidative status that are sensitive to either short-term unpredictable environmental stressors or to captivity conditions in the cheetah, a field of conservation priority.
Our findings open new research avenues about the role of oxidative stress in influencing behavioural and life-history traits in cheetahs. Conservation requires knowledge of the interaction between an organism and its environment. Thermal conditions have an important role in habitat selection, movement, and maintenance of physiological processes for ectotherms. We found that box turtles chose cooler temperatures than expected and allowed their body temperatures to match the environment, but that this had little effect on their movement.
Human—wildlife interactions are of pressing concern for conservation biologists.
We show that African elephants are chronically stressed, have smaller group sizes and may have lower calf recruitment outside of a protected area compared to inside. Additionally, this paper discusses some strengths and weaknesses of using faecal hormone analyses in the field. Concentrations of the chemical pentosidine in the bodies of endotherms are highly correlated with age, providing a useful biomarker for ageing individuals and potentially for assessing demographic structure in endangered populations. In this first study of pentosidine in an ectotherm, we found only a weak correlation in a turtle.
Analysis of blood chemistry, including whole blood pH, can provide a valuable metric of physiological disturbance in fishes exposed to anthropogenic stress. Here, we demonstrate the utility of a cost-effective, portable, waterproof pH meter in measuring lemon shark and Cuban dogfish whole blood pH. Hand-held point-of-care devices are increasingly used in wildlife settings because they are simple, portable, cheap and use small amounts of blood. However, our data show low accuracy of a glucose meter across different ages and physiological states in grey seals. Glucometers need rigorous testing before use in wildlife species.
Stress hormone levels and stable isotope ratios in hair or feathers represent an integrated picture of hormone physiology and foraging ecology of an animal. We evaluate the compatibility of laboratory preparation procedures used in ecophysiology with the intention of optimizing the efficiency of future research. Understanding variability in the physiology of stream fishes is important for predicting how populations may respond to environmental change, but obtaining these data from remote areas is challenging.
We developed a field-based respirometer, suitable for remote areas because of its simplicity and combined low overall weight and power requirements, which tested favorably against a laboratory-based system for metabolic rate estimates in fish. The presence of a broad array of hormones in baleen of multiple species indicates that baleen hormone analysis may be widely applicable for studies of reproduction, stress and metabolism of the large whales.
Chelonians are one of the most threatened groups of vertebrates in the world and conservation attempts are limited by a lack of reproductive assistance programs. This study developed a safe protocol for semen collection via electroejaculation of leopard tortoises, as a tool for use in chelonian reproductive assistance programs. Measures of stress hormone levels, specifically glucocorticoids and their metabolites, are increasingly used to index the stress burden experienced by wildlife.
However, within-sample variation may affect interpretations of results. Here we quantified within-sample variation in faecal cortisol metabolite concentrations and conducted a power analysis to demonstrate sample-size requirements for detecting meaningful differences in stress hormone levels in wildlife populations following an environmental perturbation. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford.
It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Sign In or Create an Account. Sign In. Advanced Search. Browse issues Year Issue Volume 5, Issue 1, Browse by volume. Cover image Cover image. EISSN Close mobile search navigation Issue navigation. Conservation Physiology in Action.go to link
Hormones and Reproduction of Vertebrates, Volume 3
Research articles. Voices in Conservation Physiology. Issue Navigation. Editorial Reflections and progress in conservation physiology Steven J. Cooke , Kevin R.
Hormones and Reproduction of Vertebrates - Elsevier Science & Technology - Literati by Credo
Hultine , Jodie L. Rummer , Craig E.
What if you can't sense your enemy… and your enemy is an invasive predator? Jodie L. Down the rabbit hole: how complex do eco-physiological models need to be? Sean Tomlinson.
The costs of being big in a warmer world Lisa M. Bee healthy!