Delegate: A representative to a party's national convention chosen by local voters to vote for a particular candidate.
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Each state is assigned a certain number of delegates based on its population. Demagogue: A leader whose impassioned rhetoric appeals to greed, fear, and hatred, and who often spreads lies. Former U. Joseph McCarthy see McCarthyism is often cited as a classic demagogue. Fence Mending: What politicians do when they visit their electoral districts to explain an unpopular action. The term originated in , when Ohio Senator John Sherman made a trip home that most people considered a political visit. Sherman insisted, however, that he was home "only to repair my fences.
Filibuster: An attempt by a Senator or group of Senators to obstruct the passage of a bill, favored by the majority, by talking continuously. Because there is no rule in the Senate over how long a member can speak, a Senator can prevent a bill from coming up for a vote by talking endlessly. Senator Strom Thurmond of South Carolina set the record in by speaking for more than 24 hours without stopping.
Fishing Expedition: An investigation with no defined purpose, often by one party seeking damaging information about another. Such inquiries are likened to fishing because they pull up whatever they happen to catch. Gerrymander: The reorganization of voting districts by the party in power to insure more votes for their candidates.
The term originated in , when Governor Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts signed a bill that changed districts to favor the Democrats. The shape of one new district supposedly resembled a salamander, provoking a Boston newspaper editor to say, "Salamander? Call it a Gerrymander! Ideology: An integrated system of ideas about politics, values, and culture.
Those who espouse an ideology are sometimes criticized as rigid and narrow-minded. An issue described as "inside the Beltway" is believed to be of concern only to the people who work in and with the federal government and of little interest to the nation at large.
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Lame Duck: An officeholder whose term has expired or cannot be continued, who thus has lessened power. Left-wing: Liberal.
The labeling system originated from the seating pattern of the French National Assembly, which put liberals on the left, moderates in the middle, and conservatives on the right. Lobby: A group seeking to influence an elected official, or the act of doing so. The term originated in the seventeenth century, when people waiting to speak with legislators at the English House of Commons waited in a large atrium outside the legislators' hall, called the lobby. Machine Politics: Politics controlled by a tightly-run organization that stresses discipline and rewards its supporters.
Machines are usually found in large cities and are frequently accused of corruption. McCarthyism: The practice of smearing people with baseless accusations. Refers to the tactics of Senator Joseph McCarthy, who in the s destroyed the careers of many prominent Americans by branding them Communists. Muckraker: A journalist who seeks out the scandalous activities of public officials. Photo-Op: Short for "photo opportunity," an event staged specifically for news cameras to help a politician appear in magazines and newspapers, on television, or online.
Platform: The positions that a party adopts, and stands on, at the beginning of an election campaign. Political Party: An organization that seeks to achieve political power by electing its members to public office. Political Suicide: A vote or action that is likely to be so unpopular with voters as to cause a politician's probable loss in the next election. Pork Barrel: Wasteful and unnecessary projects that politicians secure for their local districts, usually to gain favor with local voters.
The term dates from the days when salted pork was occasionally handed out to slaves from large barrels. An observer once wrote that the mad rush of politicians to get their district's share of treasury funds looked like slaves rushing to the pork barrel. Would their sporting sense of politics as a gigantic game carry him through successfully? Lee emigrated from the southwestern states, and immediately became a leader in Oregon politics. His politics are his own affair. Nearby words politicize , politick , politicking , politico , politico- , politics , politics makes strange bedfellows , polity , politzer bag , politzerization , polje.
Idioms play politics , to engage in political intrigue, take advantage of a political situation or issue, resort to partisan politics, etc. Misuse of government power for other purposes, such as repression of political opponents and general police brutality , is not considered political corruption. Neither are illegal acts by private persons or corporations not directly involved with the government. For example, government cronies may be given exclusive right to make arbitrage profit by exploiting a fixed rate mechanism in government currency.
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In democracies corruption is often more indirect. Trade union leaders may be given priority in housing queues, giving them indirectly a worth of millions. Forms of corruption vary, but include corruption , extortion , cronyism , nepotism , patronage , graft , and embezzlement. While corruption may facilitate criminal enterprise it may be legal but considered immoral.
A political party is a political organization that typically seeks to attain and maintain political power within government , usually by participating in electoral campaigns , educational outreach or protest actions. Parties often espouse an expressed ideology or vision bolstered by a written platform with specific goals, forming a coalition among disparate interests.
Political science , the study of politics, examines the acquisition and application of power. Several different political spectra have been proposed.
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Political analysts and politicians divide politics into left wing and right wing politics, often also using the idea of center politics as a middle path of policy between the right and left. This classification is comparatively recent it was not used by Aristotle or Hobbes , for instance , and dates from the French Revolution era, when those members of the National Assembly who supported the republic , the common people and a secular society sat on the left and supporters of the monarchy , aristocratic privilege and the Church sat on the right.
The meanings behind the labels have become more complicated over the years. A particularly influential event was the publication of the Communist Manifesto by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in The Manifesto suggested a course of action for a proletarian revolution to overthrow the bourgeois society and abolish private property, in the belief that this would lead to a classless and stateless society.
The meaning of left-wing and right-wing varies considerably between different countries and at different times, but generally speaking, it can be said that the right wing often values tradition and inequality while the left wing often values progress and egalitarianism , with the center seeking a balance between the two such as with social democracy , libertarianism or regulated capitalism. According to Norberto Bobbio , one of the major exponents of this distinction, the Left believes in attempting to eradicate social inequality — believing it to be unethical or unnatural  while the Right regards most social inequality as the result of ineradicable natural inequalities, and sees attempts to enforce social equality as utopian or authoritarian.
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Roberts and Patricia Hogwood, "In terms of ideology, Christian Democracy has incorporated many of the views held by liberals, conservatives and socialists within a wider framework of moral and Christian principles. Authoritarianism and libertarianism refer to the amount of individual freedom each person possesses in that society relative to the state.
Politics | Definition of Politics by Merriam-Webster
One author describes authoritarian political systems as those where "individual rights and goals are subjugated to group goals, expectations and conformities",  while libertarians generally oppose the state and hold the individual as sovereign. In their purest form, libertarians are anarchists  , who argue for the total abolition of the state, of political parties and of other political entities , while the purest authoritarians are, by definition, totalitarians who support state control over all aspects of society.
For instance, classical liberalism also known as laissez-faire liberalism ,  is a doctrine stressing individual freedom and limited government. This includes the importance of human rationality, individual property rights , free markets , natural rights , the protection of civil liberties , constitutional limitation of government, and individual freedom from restraint as exemplified in the writings of John Locke , Adam Smith , David Hume , David Ricardo , Voltaire , Montesquieu and others. According to the libertarian Institute for Humane Studies , "the libertarian, or 'classical liberal,' perspective is that individual well-being, prosperity, and social harmony are fostered by 'as much liberty as possible' and 'as little government as necessary.
Susan Brown "Liberalism and anarchism are two political philosophies that are fundamentally concerned with individual freedom yet differ from one another in very distinct ways. Anarchism shares with liberalism a radical commitment to individual freedom while rejecting liberalism's competitive property relations. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
The art or science of government or governing, especially the governing of a political entity, such as a nation, and the administration and control of its internal and external affairs.
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For other uses, see Politics disambiguation. Primary topics. Index of politics articles Politics by country Politics by subdivision Political economy Political history Political history of the world Political philosophy. Political systems. Academic disciplines. Political science political scientists. International relations theory. Public administration. Bureaucracy street-level Adhocracy.
Public policy doctrine Domestic and foreign policy Civil society Public interest. Organs of government. Separation of powers Legislature Executive Judiciary Election commission. Related topics. Sovereignty Theories of political behavior Political psychology Biology and political orientation Political organisations Foreign electoral intervention.
Main article: State polity. Main article: Global politics. Main article: Political corruption.
aqosicfi.cf Main article: Political party. Main article: Political spectrum. Politics portal. Comparative Government and Politics: An Introduction. Macmillan International Higher Education. Retrieved 25 February ECPR Press. Parties and Elections in New European Democracies.